实验室中的“十宗罪”——你犯过吗?


 本文刊载在《科技导报》2010年第7期“读者之声”栏目 

1. Filled in the lab journal ineffi-ciently. Never work with loose paper and write down clearly in a logical way. (有许多人没有养成良好的实验记录习惯,随便捡一张废纸就信手记录数据,以至于原始的实验数据保存不当,日后麻烦非常之大。)

2. Forgot to work with replicates. Replicates will give more reliable results. (忘记设置重复实验。设置重复实验可以降低随机误差,保证实验的精确性。)

3. Took no representative samples. Be sure that you have taken representative sample. Do not forget to stir. (取样时忽略了均质、搅拌等步骤,所取样品不具有代表性,根据这样的样品得到的分析、测定结果又怎么可信?)

4. Diluted the samples not enough to be in the range of the calibration curve. Dilute your sample and never extend the calibration curve. (现代很多分析实验手段诸如紫外-可见光谱、HPLC、GC等的定量分析,都需要标准曲线,如果测定值超过了标准曲线的范围,结果的可信度就不言而喻了。)

5. Forgot to take a blank account. Never forget when it is necessary to take a blank into account. This can be a reagent or a sample blank. (忽略了空白实验,包括试剂和样品的空白实验。忽略空白实验往往导致实验数据值偏大或偏小。)

6. Had code problems. Code your samples and write down the meaning of the code in your lab journal. (编号不清。一定要将实验样品的编号意义清楚、有条理地记录在实验记录册上,以备后面实验结果分析之用。)

7. Did not take the sensitivity of specific compounds into account towards conditions. Be sure that you are performing the experiment at the right conditions.(有全面考虑作用条件。在进行酶的实验中,一定要考虑到酶的作用条件,避免在极端条件下进行反应。酶是很“娇贵”的啊。)

8. Be accurate at the wrong moment. Know when you have to work precisely and when NOT to do this. (错误的时间出手。在实验过程中保持清醒的头脑,适时地检查自己的实验步骤。)

9. Did not evaluate other people's results directly. A direct evaluation will let you know if you performed the experiment well. If so, you can on with the next experiment, but if not you can directly perform the experiment again. (没有及时和直接地评价实验结果。直接的评价可以使你知道自己正在进行中的实验是否正确,如果正确,你可以进行下一个实验,如果不正确,你要再重做这个实验。)

10. Did not make estimations of outcomes. Most of the time you can make estimations of your results. This will make evaluation much easier and you can sometimes also left out some experiments in your planning. (在实验过程中,没有及时对已经得到的结果进行合理的分析和估计。很多时候,及时地分析和评估已有的实验结果,可以为你省去计划中的不少实验。)

[荷兰瓦赫宁根大学食品化学实验室提供,该实验室学生杨志翻译整理]


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保证创造力的要素:

(一)不受利已主义的干扰 

(二)不受冲突的干扰

 (三)不受紧张刺激干扰
(四)减少信息的必要性   

(五)与对象的同一   

(六)集体和对话的必要性  
(七)分散思维和辐合思维的综合

 

其他有用链接

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